The mini project collection!
This pdf contains a collection of ten unique circuits with some explanation. all the circuits are constructed with the core idea of the 555 timer IC.
Fig. 1, Dark Detector: It will sound an alarm if it gets too dark all over sudden. For example, this circuit could be used to notify when a lamp (or bulb) burns out. The detector used is a regular cadmium-sulphide Light Dependent Resistor or LDR, for short, to sense the absence of light and to operate a small speaker. The LDR enables the alarm when light falls below a certain level.
Fig. 2, Power Alarm: This circuit can be used as a audible 'Power-out Alarm'. It uses the 555 timer as an oscillator biased off by the presence of line-based DC voltage. When the line voltage fails, the bias is removed,and the tone will be heard in the speaker. R1 and C1 provide the DC bias that charges capacitor Ct to over 2/3voltage, thereby holding the timer output low (as you learned previously). Diode D1 provides DC bias to the timer-supply pin and, optionally, charges a rechargeable 9-volt battery across D2. And when the line power fails, DC is furnished to the timer through D2.
Fig. 3 Tilt Switch: Actually really a alarm circuit, it shows how to use a 555 timer and a small glass encapsulated mercury switch to indicate 'tilt'. The switch is mounted in its normal 'open' position, which allows the timer output to stay low, as established by C1 on startup. When S1 is disturbed, causing its contacts to be bridged by the mercury blob, the 555 latch is set to a high output level where it will stay even if the switch is returned to its starting position. The high output can be used to enable an alarm of the visual or the audible type. Switch S2 will silent the alarm and reset the latch. C1 is a ceramic 0.1uF (=100 nano-Farad) capacitor.
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