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Molecular nanotechnology

ABSTRACT:Any Organization has an explicit or implicit code of ethics rules that its members are expected to follow. We expect merchants to be honest, police men to be honorable and librarians to be informative. There are at least three ethical systems that are commonly used to administer different types of resources. Defending against loss is best achieved by Guardian ethics, which include that use of force and deception.
Nanotechnology presents a wide range of problems and opportunities, not just diverse issues, but different kinds of issues. Many of these issues have arisen already with older technologies and institutions. Some of the issues are new, and even the old issues take on new urgency when they occur in new combinations. Nanotech will make most exiting products quite a bit more powerful and flexible, it will probably also allow the creation of new products and even new ways of manufacturing and distributing products.
The promise of Nanotech is material evidence and rapid improvement of technology at low cost and high convenience. The threat of nanotech is potential of developing and fabricating dangerous weapons, drugs and other undesirables covertly or in large quantity. To, minimize the threat while maximizing the benefit will require the co-operation of many organization of several distinct types.

In a world of information, digital technologies have made copying fast, cheap, and perfect, quite, independent of cost or complexity of the content. What if the same were to happen in the world of matter? The production cost of a ton of tetra byte RAM chips would be about the same as the production cost of steel. Design costs matter, production costs would not matter.

At the last turn of the century, the average person would have had a hard time trying to understand how cars and airplanes worked, and computers and nuclear bombs exist only in theory. By the next turn of the century, we may have submicroscopic, self-replicating robots; machine people; the end of disease; even immortality.
Hard to imagine? Not for the new breed of scientist who says that the 21st century could see all these science fiction dreams come true the is because of molecular nanotechnology, a hybrid of chemistry and engineering that would let us manufacture anything with atomic precision. In fact, scientists claim that even within the next 50 years, this new technology will change the world in ways we can barely begin to imagine today.

(a). First Bricks Then The Building :
Before nanotechnology can become anything other than a very impressive computer simulation, nanotechnologists are inventing an assembler, a few-atoms-large nanomachine that can custom-build matter.
Engineers at Cornell and Stanford, as well as at Zyvex (the self- described "first molecular nanotechnology development company") are working to create such assemblers right now.
The first products will most likely be super strong nanoscale building materials, such as the Bucky tubes. Bucky tubes are chicken-wire-shaped tubes made from geodesic dome-shaped carbon molecules. These tubes are essentially nanometer-sized graphite fibers, and their strength is 100 to 150 times that of steel at less than one-fourth the weight. With Bucky tubes we can build super roller coasters that drop you from 14,000 feet or we could take tram rides through the Himalayas.
The key to manufacturing with assemblers on a large scale is self-replication. One nano-sized robot making wood one nano-sized piece at a time would be painfully slow. But if these assemblers could replicate themselves, we could have trillions of assemblers all manufacturing in unison. Then there would be no limit to the kinds of things we could create. "Not only will our manufacturing process be transformed, but our concept of labor. Consumer goods will become plentiful, inexpensive, smart, and durable".
(b).The Ways That Molecular Nanotechnology could Change our lives:
(b.1)Manufacturing and Industry:
Nanotechnology will render the traditional manufacturing process Obsolete. For example, we’d no longer have a steel mill Outfitted with enormous, expensive machinery, running on fossil fuels and employing hundreds of human workers; instead we'd have a nanofactory with trillions of nanobots synthesizing steel, molecule by molecule.
Bill Spence believes that all industry would disappear except software engineering and design. We’d simply design, engineer, and do a molecular model of any product we wanted, and then software could tell a nanobot how to make it.
(b.2).Use of Natural Resources:
Rather than clear-cutting forests to make paper, we'd have assemblers synthesizing paper. Rather than using oil for energy, we'd have molecule-sized solar cells mixed into road pavement a few hundred Famines would be obliterated, as food could be synthesized easily and cheaply with a microwave-sized nanobox that pulls the raw materials (mostly carbon) from the air or the soil. And by using nanobots as cleaning machines that break down pollutants, we would be able to counteract the damage we've done to the earth since the industrial revolution.
Nanotechnology could also mean the end of disease as we know it. If you caught a cold or contracted AIDS, you'd just drink a teaspoon of liquid that contained an army of molecule-sized nanobots programmed to enter your body's cells and fight viruses. If a genetic disease ran in your family, you'd ingest nanobots that would burrow into your DNA and repair the defective . Even traditional plastic surgery would be eliminated, as medical nanobots could change your eye color, alter the shape of your nose, or even give you a complete sex change without surgery.

Perhaps the big story -- with mature nanotechnology, any object can morph into any other imaginable object... truly a concept requiring personal exposure to fully understand the significance and possibilities, but to get a grip on the idea, consider this:
The age of digital matter -- multi-purpose, programmable machines, change the software, and something completely different happens.
Fractal Robots are programmable machines that can do unlimited tasks in the physical world, the world of matter. Load the right software and the same "machines" can take out the garbage, paint your car, or construct an office building and later, wash that building's windows. In large groups, these devices exhibit what may be termed as macro (hold in your hand) sized "nanobots", possessing AND performing many of the desirable features of mature nanomachines (as described in Drexler's, Engines of Creation, Unbounding the Future, Nanosystems, etc.).This is the beginning of "Digital Matter".
These Robots look like "Rubik's Cubes" that can "slide" over each other on command, changing and moving in any overall shape desired for a particular task. These cubes communicate with each other and share power through simple internal induction coils, have batteries, a small computer and various kinds of internal magnetic and electric inductive motors (depending on size) used to move over other cubes (details here). When sufficiently miniaturized (below 0.1mm) and fabricated using photolithography methods, cubes can also be programmed to assemble other cubes of smaller or larger size. This “self-assembly" is an important feature that will drop cost dramatically. The point is – if you have enough of the cubes of small enough dimension, they can slide over each other, or "morph" into any object with just about any function, one can imagine and program for such behavior. Cubes of sufficiently miniaturized size could be programmed to behave like the "T-2" Terminator Robot in the Arnold Schwarzenegger movie, or a lawn chair... Just about any animate or inanimate object.
Fractal Shape Shifting Robots have been in prototype for the last two years and this form of "digital matter" to hit the commercial seen very soon. In the near future, if you gaze out your window and see something vaguely resembling an amoeba constructing an office building, you'll know what "IT" is.
This is not to say individual purpose objects will not be desirable... Back to cotton -- although Cubes could mimic the exact appearance of a fuzzy down comforter (a blanket), if made out of cubes, it would be heavy and not have the same thermal properties. Although through a heroic engineering effort, such a "blanket" could be made to insulate and pipe gasses like comforter and even "levitate" slightly to mimic the weight and mass, why bother when the real thing can be manufactured atom by atom, on site, at about a meter a second (depending on thermal considerations).
Also, "single purpose" components of larger machines will be built to take advantage of fantastic structural properties of
Diamondoid-Buckytube composites for such things as thin, super strong aircraft parts. Today, using the theoretical properties of such materials, we can design an efficient, quiet, super safe personal vertical takeoff air car. This vehicle of science fiction is probably science future.

Everything -- but software, everything will run on software, and general engineering, as it relates to this new power over matter... and the entertainment industry. Unfortunately, there will still be insurance salesmen and lawyers, although not in my solar orbiting city state. If as Drexler suggest, we can pave streets with self assembling solar cells, I would tend to avoid energy stocks. Mature nanites could mine any material from the earth, landfills or asteroids at very low cost and in great abundance.
The mineral business is about to change. Traditional manufacturing will not be able to compete with assembler technology and what happens to all those jobs and the financial markets is a big, big issue that needs to be addressed now.
We will have a lot of obsolete mental baggage and programming to throw out of our heads... Traditional pursuits of money will need to be reevaluated when a personal assembler can manufacture a fleet of Porch, that run circles around today’s models.
As Drexler so intuitively points out, the best thing to do, is to get the whole world's society educated and understanding what will and can happen with this technology. This will help people make the transition and keep mental and financial meltdowns to a minimum.

Future generations are laughing as they read these words…
Laughing at the utter inadequacy and closed imagination of this writing... So consider this a comically inadequate list. However, if they are laughing, I am satisfied and at peace, as this means we made it through the transition (although I fear it shall not be the last).
Mega engineering for space habitation and transport in the Solar System will have a serious future. People will be surprised at how fast space develops, because right now, a very bright core of nano-space enthusiasts have engineering plans, awaiting the arrival of the molecular assembler. People like Forrest Bishop have wonderful plans for space transport and development, capable of being implemented in surprisingly short time frames. This is artificial life, programmed to "grow" faster than natural systems
An explosion in the arts and service industries are to be expected when no fields need to be plowed for our daily bread, similar to the explosion when agriculture became mechanized and efficient and the sons and daughters of farmers migrated to cities. This explosion will be exponentially greater. Leisure time, much more leisure time, more diversions... • what professions should disappear because of nano-technology?
Ditch digger, tugboat captain – most professions where humans are now used as "smart brawn", or as "the best available computer", including jet fighter pilot, truck driver, surgeon, pyramid builder, steel worker, gold miner... not that there will not be people doing these jobs, just for fun. Charming libation venders have a good future, until the A.I. We are just on the verge for finding out how frequent and varied novel situations can be.

Perhaps the definition of life and entertainment will become blurred, but as I have previously noted, you can have a LOT of fun
With Utility Fog and a super internet. In the near term, how about designing a "roller coaster" that self assembles (traditional construction costs are not a consideration) and made of super materials 80-100 times as strong as and much lighter than steel. That first drop can be made from 14,000 feet! The ride can last until you need the skin replaced on your face. How about a tram ride through the Himalayas?
Amateur underwater archeologist could map and recover ancient treasures from the Mediterranean in personal subs bristling with sensors. Dinosaur hunters could send down microscopic probes into the Earth searching for new fossil fields, then release nanomachines to meticulously unearth finds. Zero G sports are yet to be defined. These are simple examples written by a mind stuck in this contemporary world view. The possibilities are as numerous as moves in 3-D chess.
The Foresight Institute suggests we now have the question of not if the technology can be developed, but when. I agree. It is a function of the general concept awareness in society. The media is picking up Drexler’s ideas ever more quickly now. Presently, two American companies are known to be engineering several "magical" assembler dependent products right now, in anticipation of the arrival of the assembler. Who knows how many black government projects may have hundreds of millions in funding around the world. The miniaturize understands Drexler's ideas and what a weapons boon nanotechnology will be.
Keep in mind, nanotechnology is not the ultimate, nor the end of technology… is nexpico technology (trillionth of a meter)? If so, this technology would deal with “matter” on a scale 1000 times smaller and emanate from deep inside the quantum realm... What does this mean? Power and understanding over space-time to engineer super luminal flight (faster than light)? Perhaps. If so, this would probably represent only the tip of this quantum weirdness iceberg. Pico Technology may be developed with enhanced intelligence made available through nanotechnology.

One of the big problems not fully appreciated with current ideas in nano technology research is the energy requirements for synthesizing bulk materials and big molecules. If you wanted to build concrete for example atom by atom, then one has to seriously ask whether it is best done using ingredients used for the manufacture of concrete which is found in reasonable abundance or do we start with atoms. If we start with atoms, then every chemical bond in concrete must be synthesized bond, by bond, using chemical steps that would at best use several times that bond energy to achieve the desired effect. The result is a an energy requirement to synthesize concrete that is way beyond the energy required to make concrete from existing ingredients. For this reason, bulk materials will never be synthesized using nano technology methods. Nanotechnology contributions would be limited to making simple precursors if that is energetically feasible and low cost enzymes that speed up various chemical reactions.

(A).Cross Bonding:
In trying to synthesize very large molecules, like DNA, the problems with cross bonding and reactive intermediates bonding unfavorably with other molecules poses a huge risk to making perfect molecules. The work of enzymes overcomes most of these difficulties. However, enzymes have to be developed that co- exist with other enzymes and other chemicals. In nature, this is achieved through millions of years of evolution where the right chemicals have been found to do the right job through natural selection pressures. Beyond that, compartmentalization is used where chemicals cannot co-exist through their design. The compartmentalization also requires various molecules to transport materials through membranes separating the compartments. All these operations require a huge diversity of chemicals that have to be researched and perfected so that they can co-exist with the previous set of chemicals.
(B).Time Restrictions:
To perfect such systems require an unreasonable amount of effort on behalf of a nano technologist to search out all combinations. It requires considerable effort even now to research just one chemical in all its glorious working detail let alone combinations of chemicals in a system.
(C).Wholesale Mistakes:
Nano-technologists hope to side-step many of the issues by using something the equivalent of a robot arm to perform molecular level assembly. Certainly for mass manufacturing, this is a wholesale mistake as can be proved when energy considerations are taken into account.
(D).Energy Consumption:
For one thing a robot arm that picks up a precursor and attaches them precisely to a growing molecule is particularly energy inefficient. You have to pick up the precursor from one place and place it an another which requires HUGE amounts of energy in relation to the actual work accomplished.
(F).Biological Systems & Energy Conservation:
In biological system, the currency for energy is the energy carried by ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate). Every time an action is required usually a molecule of ATP is involved and energy is absorbed from ATP which is then recycled. It’s common for biochemists to cite reactions in terms of the number of ATP molecules consumed per reaction. So some chemicals require 1 ATP to accomplish its reactions while others including very large molecules require hundreds to thousands of ATP molecules to accomplish all its tasks. To move a ribosome 3 base pairs while it’s attached to a DNA requires huge numbers of ATP molecules to be consumed. But a lot of it is recovered when the final protein it makes is broken down as it gets recycled which means that overall, the process of reading DNA and making macro molecules is fairly energy efficient.
Compare that scenario where a robot arm with dimensions approaching a fraction of a micron is used to synthesize molecules. Every time the arm swings around to pick a chemical and place it at the right place to synthesize an exotic chemical, it spends billions of ATP energy equivalents in doing mechanical work. As the robot arm requires computers and sensors to make them work, we are now counting into trillions of ATP energy equivalents make one chemical bond in the newly synthesized product. There is no getting away from this reality of the total energy cost in making new materials from scratch. Nanotechnology using this type of universal assembler is clearly nonsense and doomed to failure in all but a handful of cases where small quantities of exotic chemicals are involved.
(G).Lack Of Self Repair:
Another subject not fully appreciated about the biological system is the self repair systems built in at all levels from repairing damaged DNA code to destroying molecules to re-manufacture them for re-use. Small machines need self repair at all levels to cope with the high breakage rates found at the smaller scales. Nanotechnologists cannot even begin to address the question right now because they don't have any nano technology machines ready for this work to be carried out!

“Arrive” is broadly defined as the first “universal Assembler” that has the ability to build with atoms anything one’s software defines. A universal assembler may look like a micro oven, connected to a raw atomic feed stock, like carbon black, o2, sulfur power.
Now most of the people understand that it will take. A long, disciplined effort, and it will not be an accidental discovery. Even so, they seem to believe that shortly after getting the first nanotech manipulators, well get many of the nanotech miracles. But probably the first thing we are likely to get with nanotech will be cute publicity demo’s may not even be visible to the naked eye.
It took over a decade after serious nanotechnology research got underway, to create the first nanotech robotic arm. Then we jumped over about another decade while they create thee first self replicating nano factory.

Humanity will be faced with powerful, accelerated social revolutions as a result of nanotechnology. In the near future, a team of scientists will succeed in constructing the first nano-sized robot capable of self replication. Consumer goods will become plentiful, inexpensive, smart, and durable. Medicine will take a quantum leap forward. Space travel and colonization will become safe and affordable. For these and other reasons global life styles will change radically and human behavior drastically impacted.

REFERENCE:• NANOTECHNOLOGY: A gentle introduction to the next big idea by MARK A RATNER, DANIEL RATNER technology-2002.

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